2008年4月16日 星期三

Note_20080415-- What the Buddha Taught

 

What the Buddha Taught

 

Note_20080415, at DDBC class

 

 

- Key point of chapter VII: ‘MEDITATION’ OR MENTAL CULTURE: BHĀVANĀ

 

1.    Erroneous Views

 

-       The Buddha said: there are two kinds of illness. What are those two? Physical illness and mental illness.

佛說:病有兩種。那兩種呢?肉體的病和心智的病。

 

 

-       Rare[1] in this world are those who enjoy freedom from mental illness even for one moment, except those who are free from mental defilements’ (i.e., except arahants).

世間除了心無染著的人(就是說,除了阿羅漢以外,心智方面能有片刻不生病的的人,都是稀有難得的啊!

 

 

 

2.    Meditation is no escape from life

 

-       The Buddha’s teaching, particularly his way of ‘meditation’, aims at producing a state of perfect mental health, equilibrium and tranquility.

 

佛的教誨,尤其是他所教的修習方法,其目的在培養健康、均衡和寧靜的心理,使臻完美。

 

 

-       The word meditation is a very poor substitute for the original term bhāvanā, which means ‘culture’ or ‘development’, i.e., mental culture or mental development.

 

英文中所用以代表巴利原文 bhavana (修習)的 meditation (沈思、冥索)一詞,十分不妥。Bhavana 的意義是培育、發展,尤指心智的培育與發展。

 

 

The Buddhist bhāvanā, properly speaking, is mental culture in the full sense of the term.

 

肯定點說,佛教中的修習,正是百分之百的心智培育的意思。

 

It aims:

1.    at cleansing the mind of impurities and disturbances, such as lustful desires, hatred, ill-will, indolence, worries and restlessness, skeptical doubts,

2.    and cultivating such qualities as concentration, awareness, intelligence, will, energy, the analytical faculty, confidence, joy, tranquility,

3.     leading finally to the attainment of highest wisdom which sees the nature of things as they are, and realize the Ultimate Truth, Nirvāna.

 

它的目的,

1.      在滌蕩淫欲、憎恚、怠惰、焦慮、不安、疑惑等心智方面的騷亂不淨,

2.      一方面又培育集中的注意力、清明的心智、知識、意志力、精進力、分析力、自信、歡喜心、寧靜的心境等優良品性,

3.      以冀最後導致如實知見一切事物本性的最高智慧,而證入最後的真理、涅槃。

 

 

 

3.    Two forms of Meditation

 

(samatha or samādhi)development of mental concentration, of one-pointedness of mind

(vipassanā)‘Insight’ into the nature of things, leading to the complete liberation of mind, to the realization of the Ultimate Truth, Nirvāna.

 

 

-       There are two forms of meditation. One is the development of mental concentration (samatha or samādhi), of one-pointedness of mind (cittekaggatā, Skt, cittaikāgratā), by various methods prescribed in the texts, leading up to the highest mystic states such as ‘the Sphere of Nothingness’ or ‘the Sphere of Neither-Perception-nor-Non-Perception’.

 

修習有兩種。一種是發展注意力使能集中,所謂心一境性(亦稱奢摩他、三摩地、止等)。經中有許多方法,修之可達到最高的神秘境界如無所有處、非想非非想處等。

 

-       All these mystic states, according to the Buddha, are mind-created, mind-produced, conditioned (samkhata). They have nothing to do with Reality, Truth, Nirvāna.

 

這些境界,跟據佛說,都是心造心生的、是緣成的(有為法)。它們與實相、真理、涅槃無關。

 

-       The Buddha himself, before his Enlightenment, studied these yogic practices under different teachers and attained to the highest mystic states; but he was not satisfied with them, because they did not give complete liberation, they did not give insight into the Ultimate Reality. He considered these mystic states only as ‘happy living in this existence’ (ditthadhammasukhavihāra), or ‘peaceful living’ (santavihāra), and nothing more.

 

佛在自己證正覺以前,就曾在不同的師門下,學過這種瑜伽法門,而達到了最高的神秘境界。可是,他並不以之為滿足,因為它們並不能予他以徹底的解脫,也不能使他親見最終的實相。他認為這種神秘境界只是「此生中愉快的生活」或「平靜的生活」,如此而已。

 

 

-       He therefore discovered the other form of ‘meditation’ known as vipassanā (Skt. Vipaśyanā or vidarśanā), ‘Insight’ into the nature of things, leading to the complete liberation of mind, to the realization of the Ultimate Truth, Nirvāna. This is essentially Buddhist ‘meditation’, Buddhist mental culture. It is an analytical method based on mindfulness, awareness, vigilance, observation.

-        

-       因此,他發明了另一種的修習,叫做毘婆舍那(觀),深刻地察照萬物的本性,以導致心靈的完全解脫,而證入最終的真理、涅槃。這才是主要的佛教的修習的方法、佛教的心智培育法。它是跟據觀察、警覺、洞照與憶念而作的一種分析法。

 

 

 

4.    The Setting-up of Mindfulness

 

-       The most important discourse ever given by the Buddha on mental development (‘meditation’) is called the Satipatthāna-sutta ‘The Setting-up of Mindfulness’ (No. 22 of the Digha-nikāya, or No. 10 of the Majjhima-nikāya). This discourse is so highly venerated in tradition that it is regularly recited not only in Buddhist monasteries, but also in Buddhist homes with members of the family sitting round and listening with deep devotion. Very often bhikkhus recite this sutta by the bed-side of a dying man to purify his last thoughts.

 

佛所說的法中,有關心智發展(修習)的最重要的一部經,叫做《念住經》(巴利文《長部第二十二經》或《中部第十經》)。這部經傳統上極受尊敬。不但在寺院中經常定時背誦,在佛教家庭中亦復如是,而尤家人團坐虔誠聆聽。比丘們亦常在垂死人的病榻邊讀誦此經,以淨化臨終者最後的念頭。

 

 

-       [2] The ways of ‘meditation’ given in this discourse are not cut off from life, nor do they avoid life; on the contrary, they are all connected with our life, our daily activities, our sorrows and joys, our words and thoughts, our moral and intellectual occupations.

 

這經中所創導的修習方法,既不離世亦不遁世。相反的,它與我們的生活、日常的活動、我們的憂悲喜樂、我們的語言思想、我們所從事的道德與理性的活動,靡不相關。

 

 

-       The discourse is divided into four main sections:

1.    the first section deals with our body (kāya),

2.    the second with our feelings and sensation (vedanā),

3.    the third with the wind (citta),

4.    and the fourth with various moral and intellectual subjects (dhamma).

 

這部經共分四大部份:

第一部分是關於身體的,

第二部分關於感覺與感受,

第三部分關於心智,

第四部分則關於各種道德的與理性的課題(法)。

 

 

-       It should be clearly borne in mind that whatever the form of ‘meditation’ may be, the essential thing is mindfulness or awareness (sati[3]), attention or observation (anupassanā[4]).

 

這裡有一事必須明白牢記:不論修習什麼方法,要緊的是念念分明,憶持不忘,並須注意觀察。

 

 

 

-       身、受、心、法:

身:‘Meditation' on breathingMindfulness of activitiesLiving in the present moment

受:'Meditation' on Sensation

心:On mind

法:On Ethical, spiritual and intellectual subjects

 

 

 

5.    ‘Meditation' on breathing

 

-       One of the most well-known, popular and practical examples of ‘meditation’ connected with the body is called ‘The mindfulness or Awareness of in-and-out breathing’ (ānāpānasati). It is for this ‘meditation’ only that a particular and definite posture is prescribed in the text. For other forms of ‘meditation’ given in this sutta, you may sit, stand, walk, or lie down, as you like.

 

有一個最為人所熟知、喜好而又是最實用的修習法門,叫做「憶念出入息法(數息觀)」。這是與身體有關的。只有在修習這一法門時,才需要採取一種經中指定的特別姿勢。經裡所指示的其他修習方法,就無此限制,無論行住坐臥都可隨意為之。

 

 

-       You breathe in and out all day and night, but you are never mindful of it, you never for a second concentrate your mind on it.

 

每人日夜呼吸不停,但自己絲毫不覺,因為從未有人以分秒的時間,將心神貫注在呼吸上。

 

-       That is the moment when you loose yourself completely in your mindfulness of breathing. As long as you are conscious of yourself you can never concentrate on anything.

 

只要你老覺得有你自己存在,你就不能集中注意力於任何別的東西。

 

 

-       [5] This exercise of mindfulness of breathing, which is one of the simplest and easiest practices, is meant to develop concentration leading up to very high mystic attainments (dhyāna). Besides, the power of concentration is essential for any kind of deep understanding, penetration, insight into the nature of things, including the realization of Nirvāna.

-        

-       這個念念不離呼吸的修習法,是最簡單、最容易的一種。其目的在發展注意力,以達到非常高的禪定境界。此外,集中注意力(定力),對於任何深刻的了解、深透的內觀,以洞察萬物的本性包括體證涅槃,都是不可或缺的。

 

 

-       [6] Apart from all this, this exercise on breathing gives you immediate results. It is good for your physical health, for relaxation, sound sleep, and for efficiency in your daily work. It makes you calm and tranquil.

 

除了這些,呼吸的練習更有立竿見影的效驗。它對你健康上大有裨益;能增進你的安眠,鬆弛緊張的身心,增進日常工作的效率。它能使你寧靜安詳。

 

 

 

6.    Mindfulness of activities

 

-       Another very important, practical, and useful form of ‘meditation’ (mental development) is to be aware and mindful of whatever you do, physically or verbally, during the daily routine of work in your life, private, public or professional.

 

另一種非常重要、實用而有益的修習方法(心智的發展)是:不論在做什麼事情的時候,動手也好,日常起居也好,從事公私工作也好,要時刻念茲在茲了了分明於你的每一舉動。

 

 

-       That is to say, that you should live in the present moment, in the present action. This does not mean that you should not think of the past or the future at all. On the contrary, you think of them in relation to the present moment, the present action, when and where it is relevant.

 

也就是說,你必須生活在當前的瞬間中、現在的行為中。這並不是說你不應想到過去未來。相反的,你在與眼前的時刻行為有關的方面,一樣可以想到過去未來。

 

 

 

7.    Living in the present moment[7]

 

-       People do not generally live in their actions, in the present moment. They live in the past or in the future.

 

一般的人,並不生活在他們眼前的生活中,他們都生活在過去或未來裡。

 

 

You cannot escape life however you may try.

 

不論你想什麼辦法,你都無法逃避人生。

 

 

Real life is the present moment-not the memories of the past which is dead and gone, nor the dreams of the future which is not yet born. One who lives in the present moment lives in the real life, and he is happiest.

 

真正的生活,是眼前的瞬間,不是已經死掉而消逝了的過去回憶,也不是尚未出生的未來夢想。一個生活在眼前的瞬間中的人,所過的才是真正的人生,而他也是最快樂的人。

 

'They do not repent the past, nor do they brood over the future. They lived in the present. Therefore, they are radiant. By brooding over the future and repenting the past, fools dry up like green reeds cut down (in the sun).

 

他們生活在現前的時間中,因此他們都神采奕奕。愚蠢的人,又冥索未來,又追悔過去,就像碧綠的蘆葦在驕陽中被刈斷一般,一下子就枯萎了。」

 

 

-       You should forget yourself completely, and lose yourself in what you do.

 

你應當完全忘了自己,而全心全意的浸潤在工作中。[8]

 

 

-       小結:

This mindfulness or awareness with regard to our activities, taught by the Buddha, is to live in the present moment, to live in the present action.

 

這個佛所傳授的,在一切時中都要念念分明(的念住法),也就是要生活在眼前的一瞬間裡,生活在眼前的活動裡。

 

Here in this form of meditation, you haven’t got to perform any particular action in order to develop mindfulness, but you have only to be mindful and aware of whatever you may do.

 

在這一種修習法門裡,你無須實施某種特定的活動才能發展念念分明的能力。

 

 

You have only to cultivate mindfulness and awareness always, day and night, with regard to all activities in your usual daily life.

 

你只要養成經常警覺的習慣,不分晝夜,在日常生活中的一切活動上,時刻都了了分明就可以了。

 

 

 

8.    'Meditation' on Sensation

 

-       Then there is a way of practicing mental development (‘meditation’) with regard to all our sensations or feeling, whether happy unhappy or neutral.

 

還有一種發展心智的方法,是關係我們的一切感受的;愉快的、不愉快的、既非愉快亦非不愉快的。

 

 

-       But try to see clearly why there is a sensation or a feeling of unhappiness, or worry, or sorrow. Try to examine how it arises, its cause, how it disappears, and its cessation. Try to examine it as if you are observing it from outside, without any subjective reaction, as a scientist observes some object. Here, too, you should not look at it as ‘my feeling’ or ‘my sensation’ subjectively, but only look at it as ‘a feeling’ or ‘a sensation’ objectively. You should forget again the false idea of ‘I’. When you see its nature, how it arises and disappears, your mind grows dispassionate towards that sensation, and becomes detached and free. It is the same with regard to all sensations or feelings.

 

而須設法清楚的看到為什麼會有不快、煩惱或悲哀的情緒或感覺。設法審察它如何生起,生起的原因,以及如何消失,如何止息。要以一種置身事外的態度去觀察審度它,不要有絲毫主觀的反應;須像科學家觀察事物一樣。在這裡,你也不可以「我的感覺」、「我的情緒」的主觀態度來看它,而只應客觀地視之為「一種感覺」、「一種情緒」。你又得忘掉「我」的虛妄觀念。你一旦看出它的本質,它如何生起,如何消失,你心中對這情緒就漸漸的變得冷靜淡漠,無動於中,而成為超脫自在。對於一切感受與情緒都是如此。

 

                                                      

 

9.    On mind

 

-       You should be fully aware of the fact whenever your mind is passionate or detached, whenever it is overpowered by hatred, ill-will, jealousy, or is full of love, compassion, whenever it is deluded or has a clear and right understanding, and so on and so forth. We must admit that very often we are afraid or ashamed to look at one’s own mind as one looks at one’s face in a mirror.

 

在你的情感熱烈奔放或泰然自若的時候,心中充滿瞋恚、嫉妒或是柔情、慈悲的時候,頭腦昏迷惶惑或是清楚明了的時候,凡此等等的時候,你對這種種情況都須完全有數。我們必須承認,我們常常不敢或羞於觀察自心;所以,我們寧願逃避它。我們應當勇敢誠懇的去正視自己的心念,就像在鏡中看自己的臉一樣。

 

-       Here is no attitude of criticizing or judging, or discriminating between right and wrong, or good and bad. It is simply observing, watching, examining.

 

這時,我們的態度,不是批評裁判,也不是分辨是非善惡,只是單純的觀察、偵視、審度。

 

When you observe your mind, and see its true nature clearly, you become dispassionate with regard to its emotions, sentiments and states. Thus you become detached and free, so that you may see things as they are.

 

你觀察你的心,清清楚楚地看到它的真實性質時,你就不再會對它的情感、情緒與各種狀態產生意象。這一來你就變得超脫自在,而能夠如實了知萬物的本來面目了。

 

 

-       You should only be aware and mindful of the state of an angry mind. You are only observing and examining an angry mind objectively. This should be the attitude with regard to all sentiments, emotions, and states of mind.

 

這時你又須切記:不可想「我在生氣」或想到「我的怒火」。你只須明白了知你生氣的心情,以客觀的態度去觀察它、審查它。對一切情緒、情感與心境,都應採取這一態度。

 

 

-       Then there is a form of ‘meditation’ on ethical, spiritual and intellectual subjects. All our studies, reading discussions, conversation and deliberations on such subjects are included in this ‘meditation’. To read this book, and to think deeply about the subjects discussed in it, is a form of meditation.

 

另外,還有一種對於倫理、心靈與理性方面問題的修習。我們對這類課題所做的一切研究、閱讀、商討、談論、思索,都包括在這類修習之內。

 

 

-       So, according to this form of meditation, you may study, think, and deliberate on the Five Hindrances, (Nivarana), namely:

因此,用這一種的修習方法,你可以研究、思量、審度下列的五蓋:

 

1.      lustful desires (kāmacchanda), (一)貪欲,

2.      ill-will, hatred or anger (vyāpāda), (二)瞋恚,

3.      torpor and languor (thina-middha), (三)睡眠,

4.      restlessness and worry (uddhacca-kukkucca), (四)掉悔,

5.      sceptical doubts (vicikicchā). (五)疑法。

 

These five are considered as hindrances to any kind of clear understanding, as a matter of fact, to any kind of progress. When one is over-powered by them and when one does not know how to get rid of them, then one cannot understand right and wrong, or good and bad.

 

五蓋就是防礙任何明覺,事實上也就是防礙任何進步的五種障礙。一個人如果被這五蓋所覆蔽而不知怎樣去袪除它們,他就不能分辨是非善惡。

 

 

One may also ‘meditate’ on the Seven Factors of Enlightenment (Bojjhanga). They are:

你也可以修習七覺支,就是:

 

 1.  Mindfulness (sati), i.e., to be aware and mindful in all activities and movements both physical and mental, as we discussed above.

(一)念覺支:無論在從事精神或肉體活動的時候,隨時保持念念分明,如前文所述。

 

2.   Investigation and research into the various problems of doctrine (dhamma-vicaya). Included here are all our religious, ethical and philosophical studies, reading, researches, discussions, conversation, even attending lectures relating to such doctrinal subjects.

 

(二)擇法覺支:鑽研探究各種有關教義的問題。這包括一切宗教、倫理、以及哲學的學習、閱讀、研究、討論、交談、和參考有關教義的專題演講等。

 

3.  Energy (viriya), to work with determination till the end.

(三)精進覺支:以堅定的決心,努力不懈,以底於成。

 

4.  Joy (piti), the quality quite contrary to the pessimistic, gloomy or melancholic attitude of mind.

(四)喜覺支:與消極、憂鬱、悲愁、適正相反的心裡狀態。

 

5.  Relaxation (passaddhi) of both body and mind. One should not be stiff physically or mentally.

(五)輕安覺支:身心的鬆弛,勿令身心僵硬呆滯。

 

6.  Concentration (samādhi), as discussed above.

(六)定覺支:前文已論及。

 

7.  Equanimity (upekkhā), i.e., to be able to face life in all its vicissitudes with calm of mind, tranquillity, without disturbance.

(七)行捨覺支:以寧靜安詳、不懼不亂的心情,應付人生一切變故。

 

 

 

10. On Ethical[9], spiritual and intellectual subjects.

 

-       To cultivate these qualities the most essential thing is a genuine wish, will, or inclination.

 

要培育這些德性,最重要的事,是要有一個真正的誓願,立定一個百折不撓的志向。

 

 

-       四無量心:

Apart from those we have discussed here, there are many other subjects of meditation, traditionally forty in number, among which mention should be made particularly of the four Sublime States:(Brahma-vihāra):

(I) extending unlimited, universal love and good-will (mettā) to all living beings without any kind of discrimination, ‘just as a mother loves her only child’;

(2) compassion (karunā) for all living beings who are suffering, in trouble and affliction;

(3) sympathetic joy(muditā) in other’ success, welfare and happiness; and

(4) equanimity (upekkhā) in all vicissitudes of life.

 

除了在這裡所討論者以外,尚有許多修習的題目。照傳統說共有四十種之多。其中特別值得一提的,是所謂四無量心的修習。

(一)慈心無量:將無限量的慈心,普愛一切眾生,不分軒輊,猶如慈母鍾愛獨子,一般無二。

(二)悲心無量:對一切在災難痛苦中的眾生,普遍以悲心護持被覆。

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