2008年4月15日 星期二

Note_20080408-- What the Buddha Taught

 

What the Buddha Taught

 

Note_20080408, at DDBC class

 

 

- Key point of chapter VI: THE DOCTRINE OF NO-SOUL: ANATTA

 

 

1.    What is Soul or Self?

(1) there is a permanent, everlasting and absolute entity[1]

(2) which is the unchanging substance behind the changing phenomenal world[2]

 

à This soul or self in man is the thinker of thoughts, feeler of sensations, and receiver of rewards and punishments for all its actions good and bad. Such a conception is called the idea of self.[3]

 

à [4]According to the teaching of the Buddha, the idea of self[5] is:

(1)   an imaginary,

(2)  false belief which has no corresponding reality, and

(3)  it produces harmful thoughts of ‘me’ and ‘mine’, selfish desire, craving, attachment, hatred, ill-will, conceit, pride, egoism, and other defilements, impurities and problems.

 

 

 

2.    God and Self:

-          Two ideas are psychologically deep-rooted in man; self-protection and self-preservation.[6]

-           

-          self-protection:

For self-protection man has created God, on whom he depends for his own protection, safety and security, just as a child depends on its parent.[7]

self-preservation:

For self-preservation man has conceived the idea of an immortal Soul or Ātman, which will live eternally.[8]

 

à In his ignorance, weakness, fear, and desire, man needs these two things to console himself. Hence he clings to them deeply and fanatically.[9]

 

 

 

3. Teaching "Against the Current"

 

-          The Buddha’s teaching does not support this ignorance, weakness, fear, and desire, but aims at making man enlightened by removing and destroying them[10], striking at their very root. According to Buddhism, our ideas of God and Soul are false and empty.

 

佛的教誡不但不助長這愚昧、怯懦、恐懼與貪慾,反從釜底抽新將這些(劣根性)連根芟除,以使人類得到正覺為目的。根據佛教,上帝與靈魂的概念,是虛妄不實的。

 

 

-          His teaching was ‘against the current’ (patisotagāmi), against man’s selfish desire.

 

他的教誡是反潮流的,是違反人類自私的慾念的。

 

 

-          I have realized this Truth which is deep[11], difficult to understand[12]… comprehensible only by the wise… Men who are overpowered by passions and surrounded by a mass of darkness cannot see this Truth, which is against the current, which is lofty, deep, subtle[13] and hard to comprehend[14].

 

我已證入真理。此理艱深,難見難解,......惟智者能知之......為強烈的慾望所征服而為黑暗所包圍的人,不能見此真理。這真理是反潮流的,崇高、深奧、微妙、難知。

 

 

-          In the same way in this world, there are men at different levels of development. Some would understand the Truth. So the Buddha decided to teach it.

 

在這世間也有各種根器不同的人。有些人會了解這真理的,佛這才決定說法。

 

 

 

4. Analytical and Synthetic al methods

 

-          The doctrine of Anatta or No-Soul is the natural result of, or the corollary to, the analysis of the Five Aggregates and the teaching of Conditioned Genesis (Paticca-samuppāda).

 

無我論(或稱靈魂非有論)是緣起論的推論,也是分析五蘊所得到的自然結果。

 

 

-          We have seen earlier, in the discussion of the First Noble Truth (Dukkha), that what we call a being or an individual is composed of the Five Aggregates, and that when these are analysed and examined, there is nothing behind them which can be taken as ‘I’, Ātman, or Self, or any unchanging abiding substance. That is the analytical method. The same result is arrived at through the doctrine of Conditioned Genesis which is the synthetical method, an according to this nothing in the world is absolute. Everything is conditioned, relative, and interdependent. This is the Buddhist theory of relativity.

 

在前文討論第一聖諦(苦諦)的時候,已說明所謂眾生或個人是由五蘊綜合而成。將五蘊予以分析審察,找不到在它們幕後另有一個可以稱之為我、神我或自我的長住不變的實質。這是分析法,但用合成法的緣起論,也能得到同樣的結果。根據緣起論,世間沒有一件事物是絕對的。每一件事物都是因緣和合的(由條件構成的)、相對的、互為依存的。這就是佛教的相對論。

 

 

 

5. Conditioned Genesis

 

-          When this is, that is (Imasmim sati idam hoti);[15]

This arising, that arises (Imassuppādā idam uppajjati); [16]

When this is not, that is not (Imasmim asati idam na hoti);

This ceasing, that ceases (Imassa nirodhā idam nirujjhati).

 

此有故彼有,此生故彼生;此無故彼無,此滅故彼滅。

 

 

-          On this principle of conditionality[17], relativity[18] and interdependence[19], the whole existence and continuity of life and its cessation are explained in a detailed formula which is called Paticca-samuppāda ‘Conditioned Genesis.

 

在這緣起、相對、互存的原則下,整個生命的存在、持續,以迄寂滅,都在一條叫做緣起法則的公式裡解釋得十分週詳。

 

 

-          十二因緣流轉門 & Conditioned Genesis公式詮釋十二因緣[20]

1. Through ignorance are conditioned volitional actions or karma-formations (Avijjāpaccayā samkhārā).

一、因為無知,乃有種種意志的活動而成業

With ignorance as condition, volitional actions arise.(無明緣行)。

 

2. Through volitional actions is conditioned consciousness (Samkhārapaccayā viňňānam).

  二、因為有種種意志的活動,乃有知覺的生起

With volitional actions as condition, consciousness arise.(行緣識)。

 

3. Through consciousness are conditioned mental and physical phenomena (Viňňānapaccayā nāmarūpam).

  三、因為有知覺,乃有精神與肉體的現象產生

With consciousness as condition, mental and physical phenomena arise.(識緣名色)。

 

4. Through mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the six faculties (i.e., five physical sense-organs and mind) (Nāmarūpapaccayā salāyatanam).

     四、因為有了精神與肉體的現象發生,乃有六根的形成
With mental and physical phenomena as condition, the six faculties arise.
(名色緣六入)。

 

5. Through the six faculties is conditioned (sensorial and mental) contact (Salāyatanapaccayā phasso).

五、因為有六根,乃有(感官與心靈)對外境的接觸
With six faculties as condition, (sensorial and mental) contact arise.
(六入緣觸)。

 

6. Through (sensorial and mental) contact is conditioned sensation (Phassapaccayā vedanā).

六、因為有(感官與心靈)對外境的接觸,乃生起種種感受
With (sensorial and mental) contact as condition, sensation arise.
(觸緣受)。

 

7. Through sensation is conditioned desire, ‘thirst’ (Vedanāpaccayā tanhā).

七、因為有種種感受,乃生起種種貪欲「渴(愛)」
With sensation as condition, desire, ‘thirst’ arise.
(受緣愛)。

 

8. Through desire (‘thirst’) is conditioned clinging (Tanhāpaccayā upādānam).

八、因為有種種貪愛,乃產生執取不捨
With desire, ‘thirst’ as condition, clinging arise.
(愛緣取)。

 

9. Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming (Upādānapaccayā bhavo).

九、因為有執取不捨,乃有存在
With clinging as condition, the process of becoming arise.
(取緣有)。

 

10. Through the process of becoming is conditioned birth (Bhavapaccayā jāti).

十、因為有存在,乃有生命
With the process of becoming as condition, birth arise.
(有緣生)。

 

11. Through birth are conditioned (12) decay, death, lamentation, pain, etc. (Jātipaccayā jarāmaranam…).

十一、因為有生命,乃有敗壞、死亡、哀傷、痛苦等
With birth as condition, decay, death, lamentation, pain, etc. arise.
(生緣老病死憂悲苦惱)。

 

 

-          十二因緣還滅門[21]

This is how life arises, exists and continues. If we take this formula in reverse order, we come to the cessation of the process: Through the complete cessation of ignorance, volitional activities or karma-formations cease; through the cessation of volitional activities, consciousness ceases; … through the cessation of birth, decay, death, sorrow, etc., cease.

 

生命便像這樣生起、存在、持續。假使我們將這公式的順序倒過來,便得出如下的緣滅的逆定理:(滅),因為意志活動止息,知覺也同時止息(行滅則識滅)......乃至因為生命的止息而一切敗壞死亡哀傷等等一應俱滅。

 

 

1. When ignorance ceasing, volitional actions ceases.

無明滅則行滅

 

2. When volitional actions ceasing, consciousness ceases.

行滅則識滅

 

3. When consciousness ceasing, mental and physical phenomena ceases.

識滅則名色滅

 

4. When mental and physical phenomena ceasing, the six faculties ceases.

名色滅則六入滅

 

5. When six faculties ceasing, (sensorial and mental) contact ceases.

六入滅則觸滅

 

6. When (sensorial and mental) contact ceasing, sensation ceases.

觸滅則受滅

 

7. When sensation ceasing, desire, ‘thirst’ ceases.

受滅則愛滅

 

8. When desire, ‘thirst’ ceasing, clinging ceases.

愛滅則取滅

 

9. When clinging ceasing, the process of becoming ceases.

取滅則有滅

 

10. When the process of becoming ceasing, birth ceases.

有滅則生滅

 

11. When birth ceasing, decay, death, lamentation, pain, etc., ceases.

生滅則老病死憂悲苦惱滅

 

 

Conditioned Genesis should be considered as a circle, and not as a chain.

緣起法則是一個首尾相接的環,而不是一條直線的鏈子。

 

 

 

6. Question of Free Will

 

-          The question of Free Will has occupied an important place in Western thought and philosophy. But according to Conditioned Genesis, this question does not and cannot arise in Buddhist philosophy. If the whole of existence is relative, conditioned and interdependent, how can will alone be free?

 

自由意志的問題,在西方的思想界與哲學界中,佔有很重要的地位。但是根據緣起法,這問題在佛教哲學中是不存在的,也是不能生起的。既然整個的存在是相對的、有條件的(因緣和合的)、互為依存的,我們何能單獨自由?

 

 

-          Will, like any other thought, is conditioned.

意志與其他思想一樣是緣生的。

 

-          So-called ‘freedom’ itself is conditioned and relative.

所謂「自由」,其本身就是相對的、緣生的。

 

-          There can be nothing absolutely free, physical or mental, as everything is interdependent and relative.

無論是肉體或精神方面,沒有一件事物是絕對自由的,因為一切都是相對的、互為依存的。

 

-          Not only so-called free will is not free, but even the very idea of Free Will is not free from conditions.

不但所謂自由意志並不自由,甚至自由意志這一觀念都不是無條件的。

 

-          According to the doctrine of Conditioned Genesis, as well as according to the analysis of being into Five Aggregates, the idea of an abiding, immortal substance in man or outside, whether it is called Ātman, ‘I’, Soul, Self, or Ego, is considered only a false belief, a mental projection. his is the Buddhist doctrine of Anatta, No-Soul or No-Self.

 

根據緣起法則,也根據眾生為五蘊和合而成的這一分析,在人身內或身外,有一常住不變的實質,名為神我、我、靈魂、自我、個我,這一觀念,只能被認為是一種邪信、一種心造的影像。這就是佛教的無我論或稱靈魂非有論。

 

 

 

7. Two kinds of Truths

 

-          There are two kinds of truths: conventional truth and ultimate truth.

真理有兩種:世俗的真理(俗諦)與最高的真理(真理)。

 

-          When we use such expressions in our daily life as ‘I’, ‘you’, ‘being’, ‘individual’, etc., we do not lie because there is no self or being as such, but we speak a truth conforming to the convention of the world. But the ultimate truth is that there is no ‘I’ or ‘being’ in reality. As the Mahāyāna-sūtrālankāra says: ‘A person (pudgala) should be mentioned as existing only in designation (prajňapti) (i.e., conventionally there is a being), but not in reality.

-           

我們在日常生活中,用我、你、眾生、個人等名詞的時候,不能因為實無我及眾生等而將上項名詞視為妄語。這些名詞在世俗共認的意義來說,也是真實的。但是,最高的真理,卻是實際上並無我與眾生。在《大乘莊嚴經論》裡就說:「當知『補特伽羅』祇是假名安立(依世俗說,有所謂眾生),並無實義。」

 

 

 

8. Some erroneous views[22]

 

-          He hears the Tathāgata or a disciple of his, preaching the doctrine aiming at the complete destruction of all speculative views… aiming at the extinction of “thirst”, aiming at detachment, cessation, Nirvāna. Then than man thinks: “I will be annihilated, I will be destroyed, I will be no more.” So he mourns, worries himself, laments, weeps, beating his breast, and becomes bewildered.

 

當他聽到如來及其弟子所弘傳的教義,目的在摧毀一切臆見(戲論)......消滅「渴(愛)」,達到無著、寂滅、涅槃時,那人自忖:『我要被消滅了,我要被毀掉了,我將不再存在。』於是他就哀傷、憂慮、焦急不安、椎胸痛哭而精神恍惚,不知如何是好。

 

 

-          One is that, according to the Buddha’s teaching, a being is composed only of these Five Aggregates, and nothing more. Nowhere has he said that there was anything more than these Five Aggregates in a being.

 

第一:根據佛說,眾生僅由五蘊和合而成。除此之外再無別物。沒有一部經中,佛曾說眾生身中除了五蘊尚有他物。

 

The second reasons is that the Buddha denied categorically, in unequivocal terms, in more than one place, the existence of Ātman, Soul, Self, or Ego within man or without, or anywhere else in the universe.

 

第二:佛曾在不只一部經中,毫不含糊地斷然否認人身中或身外或在宇宙中之任何一處有神我、靈魂、自我、個我的存在。

 

 

-          All conditioned things are impermanent’ (Sabbe SAMKHĀRĀ aniccā), and ‘All conditioned things are dukkha’ (Sabbe SAMKHĀRĀ dukkhā).

一切有為的事物,都是無常的(諸行無常)。」以及「一切有為的事物,都是苦的(諸行皆苦)。

 

All dhammas are without self’ (Sabbe SAMKHĀRĀ anattā).

一切法都是沒有『我』的(諸法無我)。

 

-          The term samkhāra denotes the Five Aggregates, all conditioned, interdependent, relative things and states, both physical and mental.

行的意思,就是五蘊與一切緣起、依存、相對的事物(精神的和肉體的都在內)。

 

 

 

9. The Buddha definitely dentles ‘Atman’[23]

 

-          All dhammas are without Self’, there is no Self, no Ātman, not only in the Five Aggregates, but nowhere else too outside them or apart from them.

「諸法無我」很顯然的是說不僅五蘊之中無我,在五蘊之外或離開五蘊依然無我(法無我)。

 

-          There is no self either in the individual (puggala) or in dhammas.

無論在人(補特伽羅)或法中,都沒有我。

 

-          ‘One is one’s own refuge’ or ‘One is one’s own help’ or ‘support’.

「人當自作依怙」或「人當自助(支援自己)」

 

-          It has nothing to do with any metaphysical soul or self. It simple means that you have to rely on yourself, and not on others.

這話與任何形而上的靈魂或「我」都不相干。它的意義很簡單,只是:人應當依靠自己,不可依賴他人。如此而已。

 

 

-          ‘Dwell[24] making yourselves your island (support), making yourselves your refuge, and not anyone else as your refuge.’

 

以你自己作為你的島嶼(支應)而安住,以你自己作為你的依怙,而不以任何其它的人作為你的皈依處。

 

-          [25]Dwell making yourselves your island (support), making yourselves, not anyone else, your refuge; making the Dhamma your island (support), the Dhamma your refuge, nothing else your refuge.

 

應當以你們自己為島嶼(支應)而安住,以你們自己而不以任何他人作為你們的皈依;以法為你們的島嶼(支應),以法為你們的皈依,不以任何他物為你們的皈依處。

 

 

-          Further, The Buddha explained to Ānanda how one could be one’s own island or refuge, how one could make the Dhamma one’s own island or refuge: through the cultivation of mindfulness or awareness of the body, sensations, mind and mind-objects (the four Satipatthānas).

-           

接著,佛還向阿難解釋一個人應如何成為自己的島嶼或依怙,一個人應如何以「法」為自己的島嶼和依怙:要養成念念分明。對自己的色身、感覺、心王、心所的一切動態,時時刻刻無不了然洞照(四念處)。

 

 

-          Your island  以自為舟

Your refuge  以自為依

 

 

- 什麼叫做無我?

1. 五蘊、人、法無我

2. 自依止、法依止

 

 

 

10. The Buddha’s silence

 

-          Much has been written on the subject of the Buddha’s silence when a certain Parivrājaka (Wanderer) named Vacchagotta asked him whether there was an Ātman or not.

 

關於遊方者婆嗟種問佛是否有神我,佛緘口不答。

 

 

-          The Buddha why he did not answer Vacchagotta’s question? Why the Buddha was silence?

 

-          The Buddha explains his position[26]:

  1. When asked by Vacchagotta the Wanderer: “Is there a self?”, if I had answered: “There is a self”, then, that would be siding with those recluses and brāhmanas who hold the eternalist theory (sassata-vāda).[27]
  2. And, when asked by the Wanderer: “Is t

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