2008年3月26日 星期三

Note_20080325-- What the Buddha Taught

 

What the Buddha Taught

 

Note_20080325, at DDBC class

 

 

- key point of chapter II: SAMUDAYA, The Arising of Dukkha[1]

 

1. Define: Thirst

(1) Function:

A. re-existence re-becoming:

  It is this “thirst” (craving, tanhā) which produces re-existence and re-becoming (ponobhavikā).[2]

B. passionate greet

  It is this “thirst” which is bound up with passionate greed (nandirāgasahagatā).[3]

C. fresh delight

  It is this “thirst” which finds fresh delight now here and now there (tatratatrābhinandini).[4]

 

(2) Kind:

A. sense-pleasure

  thirst for sense- pleasures (kāma-tanhā)[5] 

B. existence and becoming

  thirst for existence and becoming (bhava-tanhā)[6] 

C. non-existence

  thirst for non-existence (self-annihilation, vibhava-tanhā)[7] 

 

- thirst ß sensation ß contact

渴(愛) ß ß

 

 

2. Four Nutriments[8]

(1) ordinary material food (kabalinkārāhāra),

(2) contact of our sense-organs (including mind) with the external world (phassāhāra),

(3) consciousness (viňňānāhara)

(4) mental volition or will (manosaňcetanāhāra).

 

 

3. Root cause of suffering and continuing

(1) One these four, the last mentioned ‘mental volition’ is the will to live, to re-exist, to continue, to become more and more.[9] 

(2) It creates the root of existence and continuity, striving[10] forward by the way of good and bad actions (kusalākusalakamma).[11] 

 

à thirst = volition = mental volition = karma[12]

 

à What is the cause of the arising of dukkha?

Thirst is the cause of the arising of dukkha, and this is found within the Aggregate of Mental Formations, one of the Five Aggregates which constitute[13] a being.[14]   

 

 

4. Nature of arising and cessation[15] 

(1) formula: hatever is of the nature of arising, all that is of the nature of cessation.[16]  

(2) Thus dukkha (Five Aggregates) has within itself the nature of its own arising, and has also within itself the nature of its own cessation.[17]  

 

 

5. Kamma and Rebirth[18]

(1) karma à it means 'Volitional action', not all action.

(2) not the karma fruit or karma result

       

 

- An Arahant:[19]

(1) though he acts, does not accumulate karma[20]

(2) free from the false idea of self[21]

(3) free from the 'thirst' for continuity and becoming

(4) free from all other defilements and impurities[22]

àFor him there is no rebirth.[23]

 

 

6. What is death?

(1) What we call death is the total non-functioning of the physical body.[24]

(2) Will, volition, desire, thirst to exist, to continue, to become more and more, is a greatest force, this force does not stop with the non-functioning of the body, which is death; but it continues manifesting itself in another form, producing re-existence which is called rebirth.[25]

 

- will, volition, desire, thirst

â

to exist

to continue

to become more and more

 

 

7. What is rebirth?[26]

(1) thirst:

 A. It is the combination of the Five Aggregates, a combination of physical and mental energies.[27]

 B. When the Aggregates arise, decay and die, every moment you are born, decay and die.’ Thus, even now during this life time, every moment we are born and die, but we continue.[28]

 

(2) karma and rebirth:

 C. When this physical body is no more capable of functioning, energies do not die with it, but continue to take some other shape or form, which we call another life.[29]

 D. Physical and mental energies which constitute the so-called being have within themselves the power to take a new form, and grow gradually and gather force to the full.[30]

 E. It is a series that continues unbroken, but changes every moment.[31]

 F. The series is, really speaking, nothing but movement.[32]

 G. The difference between death and birth is only a thought-moment: the last thought-moment in this life conditions the first thought-moment in the so-called next life, which, in fact, is the continuity of the same series. During this life itself, too, one thought-moment conditions the next thought-moment.[33]

 

 

Key Words:

 - the false idea of self 虛妄我見

 - the continuity of beings 生死相續不斷

  - selfish thirst 自私的渴愛

 - cause and condition 因緣

  - a new form 新色身

  - to be 求生

  - to become 求存

 

 

Key Sentences:

- this ‘thirst’ has as its centre the false idea of self arising out of ignorance. 

這渴(愛)的核心,就是從無明生起的虛妄我見

 

- Good karma (kusala) produces good effects, and bad karma (akusala) produces bad effects.

善業得善果,惡業得惡果。(善有善報,惡有惡報)

 

- The theory of karma is the theory of cause and effect, of action and reaction. 

業的理論,就是因果的理論、動力與反動力的理論。

 

- Every volitional action produces its effects or results. If a good action produces good effects and a bad action bad effects, it is not justice, or reward, or punishment meted out by anybody or any power sitting in judgment on your action, but this is in virtue of its own nature, its own law.

每一個有意的行為,一定有它的效應和結果。善業得善果,惡業得惡果。不是正義,不是任何「人」或力量對你的行為加以裁判後所施於你的獎懲,而是因為這些行為的本質如此。這是它們本身的法則。

 

- according to the karma theory, the effects of a volitional action may continue to manifest themselves even in a life after death.

根據「業」的理論,意志行為的效果,即使在人死後,在來生仍能繼續呈現。

 

 


Key point of chapter III: The Third Noble Truth: NIRODHA: ‘The cessation of Dukkha’

 

1. What is Nirvana?

àTerm as the Nirvana[34]:

(1) Liberation, freedom

(2) Extinction of Thirst[35]

(3) Absolute Truth / Ultimate Reality

(4) Unconditioned[36]

(5) Absence of desire[37]

(6) Cessation

 

 

2. Language and Absolute Truth:

  (1) The third Noble Truth is that there is emancipation, liberation, freedom from suffering, from the continuity of dukkha.[38]

  (2) To eliminate dukkha completely one has to eliminate the main root of dukkha, which is ‘thirst’ (tanhā). Therefore Nirvāna is known also by then term Tanhakkhaya ‘Extinction of Thirst’.[39]

 

 

3. Definitions of Nirvana.[40]

A. Extinction of Thirst

(1) It is the complete cessation of that very ‘thirst’ (tanhā), giving it up, renouncing it, emancipation from it, detachment from it.[41]

(2) Calming of all conditioned things, giving up of all defilements, extinction of “thirst”, detachment, cessation, Nibbāna.[42]

(3) The extinction of “thirst” (Tanhakkhayo) is Nibbāna.[43]

(4) Whatever there may be things conditioned or unconditioned, among them detachment (virāga) is the highest. That is to say, freedom from conceit, destruction of thirst, the uprooting of attachment, the cutting off of continuity, the extinction of “thirst”, detachment, cessation, Nibbāna.[44]

(5) The abandoning and destruction of desire and craving for these Five Aggregates of Attachment” that is the cessation of dukkha.[45]

(6) The cessation of Continuity and becoming (Bhavanirodha) is Nirvāna.[46]

(7) Since there is the unborn, ungrown, and unconditioned, so there is escape for the born, grown, and conditioned.[47]

(8) Here the four elements of solidity, fluidity, heat and motion have no place; the notions of length and breadth, the subtle and the gross, good and evil, name and form are altogether destroyed; neither this world nor the other, nor coming, going or standing, neither death nor birth, nor sense-objects are to be  found.[48]

 

B. Extinction of desire, the extinction of hatred , the extinction of illusion

 (1) What is the Absolute (Asamkhata, Unconditioned)? It is the extinction of desire (rāgakkhayo) the extinction of hatred (dosakkhayo), the extinction of illusion (mohakkhayo). This is called the Absolute.[49]

 (2) The extinction of desire, the extinction of hatred, the extinction of illusion.[50]

 

 

4. Nirvana is not negative

à If at all, it is the annihilation of the illusion, of the false idea of self.[51]

 

 

5. Nirvana as Absolute Truth

(1) Nirvāna, Absolute Truth, which is beyond duality and relativity.[52]

(2) Nirvāna, Mutti or Vimutti, the Absilute Freedom, is freedom from all evil, freedom from craving, hatred and ignorance, freedom from all terms of duality, relativity, time and space.[53]

(3) The Absolute Noble Truth (paramam ariyasaccam) is Nibbāna, which is Reality.[54]

 

 

6. What is Absolute Truth?

 (1) According to Buddhism, the Absolute Truth is that there is nothing absolute in the world.[55]

 (2) everything is relative, conditioned and impermanent[56]

 (3) there is no unchanging, everlasting, absolute substance like Self, Soul, or Ātman within or without[57]

 

 

7. Truth is not negative.

 (1) see things as they are (yathābhūtam) without illusion or ignorance (avijjā)[58]

 (2) is the extinction of craving ‘thirst’ (Nirodha) of dukkha, which is Nirvāna[59]

 

 

8. Nirvana and Samsara[60]

à Mahāyāna view of Nirvāna as not being different from Samsāra.[61]

 

 

9. Nirvana not a result

 (1) It is incorrect to think that Nirvāna is the natural result of the extinction of craving.[62]

 (2) Nirvāna is not the result of anything.[63]

 

 

10. What is there after Nirvana?

 (1) Nirvāna is the Ultimate Truth.[64]

 (2) If it is Ultimate, there can be nothing effect it.[65]

 (3) If there is anything after Nirvāna, then that will be the Ultimate Truth and not Nirvāna.[66]

 

 

11. Incorrect expressions[67]

Some popular inaccurately phrased expressions like ‘The Buddha entered into Nirvāna or Parinirvāna after his death’ have given rise to many imaginary speculations about Nirvāna. The moment you hear the phrase that ‘the Buddha entered into Nirvāna or Parinirvāna’, you take Nirvāna to be a state, or a realm, or a position in which there is some sort of existence, and try to imagine it in terms of the senses of the word ‘existence’ as it is known to you. This popular expression ‘entered into Nirvāna’ has no equivalent in the original texts. There is no such thing as ‘entering into Nirvāna after death’. There is a word parinibbuto used to denote the death of the Buddha or an Arahant who has realized Nirvāna, but it does not mean ‘entering into Nirvāna’. Parinibbuto simply mean ‘fully blown out’ or ‘fully extinct’, because the Buddha or an Arahant has no re-existence after his death.

 

若干通俗而不正確的語句,如「佛於死後入於涅槃或般涅槃」,曾引起許多對涅槃的幻想與揣測。﹝註二十二﹞一聽說「佛入涅槃或般涅槃」,即以為涅槃是一種境界、一種領域或一個位置,其間仍有某種的存在,而以所熟知的「存在」一詞的涵義來臆測涅槃是何等樣子。這通俗的說法「佛入涅槃」在巴利文原典中,並無與它相當的詞句。所謂「佛於死後入於涅槃」,根本沒有這一說。巴利文中有 Pariniuto一詞用以代表佛或阿羅漢等親證涅槃者的逝去,但這字的意思並非「入於涅槃」。這字簡單的意義,只是「完全謝世」、「完全熄滅」或「圓寂」而已。因為佛或阿羅漢死後即不再受生。

 

 

12. What happens to Arahant after death?

Now another question arises: What happens to the Buddha or an Arahant after his death, parinirvāna? This comes under the category of unanswered questions (avyākata). Even when the Buddha spoke about this, he indicated that no words in our vocabulary could express what happens to an Arahant after his death. In reply to a Parivrājaka named Vaccha, the Buddha said that terms like ‘born’ or ‘not born’ do not apply in the case of an Arahant, because those things-matter, sensation, perception, mental activities, consciousness- with which the terms like ‘born’ and ‘not born’ are associated, are completely destroyed and up-rooted, never to rise again after his death.

 

另外一個問題是:佛或阿羅漢死(般涅槃)後如何?這問題是屬於不可答的問題之類(無記)。佛談到這問題時,也表示在人類的辭彙裡,沒有字眼可以表達阿羅漢死後的情狀。在答覆一個名叫婆磋的遊方者所發的同樣問題的時候,佛說「生」、「不生」等名詞不能適用於阿羅漢。因凡與「生」、「不生」有所關聯的色、受、想、行、識等,以阿羅漢言,俱已澈底根除無遺,死後不再生起。

 

 

13. If no self, who realize Nirvana?

There is another popular question: If there is no Self, no Ātman, who realizes Nirvāna? Before we go on to Nirvāna, let us ask the question: Who thinks now, if there id no Self? We have seen earlier that it is the though that thinks, that there is no thinker behind the thought. In the same way, it is wisdom (paňňa), realization, that realizes. There is no other self behind the realization. In the discussion of the origin of dukkha we saw that whatever it may be- whether being, or thing, or system- if it is of the nature of arising, it has within itself the nature, the germ, of its cessation, its destruction. Now dukkha, samsāra, the cycle of continuity, is of the nature of arising; it must also be of the nature of cessation. Dukkha arises because of ‘thirst’ (tamhā), and it ceases because of wisdom (paňňa). ‘Thirst’ and wisdom are both within the Five Aggregates, as we saw earlier.

 

另外,還有一個很普通的問題:如果沒有「我」,沒有「神我」,那末誰來親證涅槃呢?在沒有談到涅槃之前,先讓我們自問:如果沒有「我」,現在想者是誰?在前面的文章裡,我們已經弄明白:思想的乃是念頭,在念頭的後面,再沒有其他的思想者。同樣的,能證涅槃的就是智慧(般若)。在證的幕後,別無證者。在討論苦的來源(集諦)時,我們已經明瞭,不論什麼——眾生、事、物、制度只要是緣起的,在它自身內即含有滅、壞的種子。苦與輪迴,相續不斷的生死,都是緣起的,所以也一定是緣滅的。苦因貪愛(渴)生,由般若(智慧)而滅。貪愛與般若都在五蘊之內,前文已經講過。

 

there is no external power that produces the arising and the cessation of dukkha.[68]

 

 

14. Nirvana in this life[69]

In almost all religions the summum bonum can be attained only after death. But Nirvāna can be realized in this very life; it is not necessary to wait till you die to ‘attain’ it.

在幾乎所有的宗教中,至善之境只有在死後方能達到。涅槃卻可以當生成就,不必等到死方能「獲得」。   

 

 

 

 

Key Words:

- 「出家」可用’renounce the world’,這是通所有宗教的。而特指佛教的出家,可用’enter the Sangha’

- pure equanimity (upekhā):捨心。

- Parinibbuto:圓寂。

 

 

 

Key Sentences:

- He neither mentally creates nor wills continuity and becoming (bhava) or annihilation (vibbava).[70]

 

  - As he does not construct or does not will continuity and becoming or annihilation, he does not cling to anything in the world; as he does not cling, he is not anxious; as he is not anxious, he is completely calmed within (fully blown out within paccattam yeva parinibbāyati).[71]

 

 - Finished is birth, lived is pure life, what should be done is done, nothing more is left to be done.[72]

 

- He experiences it would being bound to it (visamyutto).[73]

 

  - TRUTH IS. NIRVĀNA IS. The only thing you can do is to see it, to realize it.[74]

 

 

 

 



[1] 集諦

[2] 『渴(愛)』它造成『來世』與『後有』。

[3] 『渴(愛)』它與強烈的貪欲相纏結。

[4] 『渴(愛)』它隨地隨處拾取新歡。

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