2008年3月22日 星期六

Key point about 'What the Buddha Taught': Chapter 8

 

What the Buddha Taught

 

 

Chapter VIII

What the Buddha Taught and the world today

 

- True renunciation:[1]

1. True renunciation does not mean running away physically from the World.

2. It is certainly more praiseworthy and courageous to practice Buddhism living among your fellow beings, helping them and being of service to them.

3. The Buddha's teaching Which is based on love, compassion, and service to others.

 

 

- Why was the Sangha, the Order of monks, established by the Buddha?

1. The Order provides Opportunity for those who are willing to devote their lives, not only to their own spiritual and intellectual development, but also to the service of others.

2. The Sangha have no family responsibilities or any other worldly ties, is in a position to devote his whole life 'for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many' according to the Buddha's advice[2].

3. The Buddhist monastery became not only a spiritual centre, but also a centre of learning and culture.

 

 

- The noble discipline of the six directions:[3]

1. East: parents

(1) Parents are sacred to their children.

(2) The children have to perform certain duties towards their parents according to the 'noble discipline'.

(3) Parents have certain responsibilities towards their children.

 

2. South: teachers

(1) The relation between Teacher and pupil.

(2) A pupil should respect and be obedient to his teacher.

(3) A teacher should train and shape his pupil properly.

 

3. West: wife and children

(1) The relation between husband and wife.

(2) Love between hoi husband and wife is considered almost religious or sacred. It is called 'sacred family life[4]'.

(2) Wives and husbands should be faithful, respectful and devoted to each other, and they have certain duties towards each other.

 

4. North = friends, relatives and neighbors

(1) The relation between friends, relatives and neighbors.

(2) They should be hospitable and charitable to one another; should be on equal terms with one another: should help each other in need.

 

5. Nadir: servants, workers and employees

(1) The relation between master and servant.

 

6. Zenith: religious men

(1) The relation between the religious and the fairy.

(2) Lay people should look after the material needs of the religious with love and respect.

(3) The religious with a loving heart should impart knowledge and learning to the laity, and lead them among the good path away from evil.

 

 

- What is the 'Worship (namasseyya)[5]'?

1. For one worships something sacred, something worthy of honour and respect.

2. One could 'worship' them only by performing one's duties[6] towards them.

 

 

- How to become a Buddhist?

1. Refuges the Triple-Gem[7] --- Buddha, Dharma, Sangha.

2. Undertakes to observe the Five Precepts[8]:

(1) not to destroy life,

(2) try to steal,

(3) not to commit adultery,

(4) not to tell ties,

(5) not to take intoxicating drinks.

 

 

- How will be conducive to happiness in this world and hereafter for lay men[9]?

1. Four things are conducive to a man's happiness in this world:

(1) should be work hard in whatever profession he is engaged, and he should know it well.

(2) should protect his income, with the sweat of his brow.

(3) should have good friends Who will help him along the right path away from evil.

(4) should spend reasonably, in proportion to his income, neither too much nor too Little-in other Words he should live within his means[10].

 

2. The for virtues conductive to a layman's happiness hereafter:

(1) saddha[11]: he should have faith and confidence in moral, spiritual and intellectual values.

(2) Sita[12]: he should abstain from destroying and harming life, from stealing and cheating, from adultery, from falsehood, and from intoxicating drinks.

(3) Caga[13]: he should practice charity, generosity, without attachment and Craving for his Wealth.

(4) Panna: he should develop wisdom which leads to the complete destruction of suffering, to 'realization of Nirvana.

 

 

- About saving and spending money:

1. spend one fourth of his income on his daily expenses.

2. invest half in his business.

3. put aside one fourth for any emergency.

 

 

- Buddhism aims at creating a society:

1. Where the ruinous struggle In power is tenanted.

2. Where calm and peach prevail away from conquest and defeat.

3. Where the persecution of the innocent is vehemently denounced.

4. Where one who conquers oneself is more respected than those who conquer millions by military and economic warfare.

5. Where hatred is conquered by kindness[14], and evil by goodness[15].

6. Where enmity, jealousy, ill-will and greed do not infect men's minds.

7. Where compassion is the driving force of action.

8. Where all, including the lease of living things, are treated with fairness, consideration and love.

9. Where life in peace and harmony, in a world of material contentment.

10. It is directed towards the highest and noblest aim, the 'realization of the Ultimate Truth, Nirvana.

 



[1] 真正的出離。

[2] 佛誡。

[3] 佛教聖律中的六方。

[4] 居家梵行。

[5] 禮拜。

[6] 敦倫盡份。

[7] 三寶。

[8] 五戒。

[9] 在今生後世都享有快樂。

[10] 量入為出。

[11] Pali,信。

[12] Pali,戒。

[13] Pali,施。

[14] 仇恨被仁慈征服。

[15] 惡被善征服。

 

沒有留言:

張貼留言