2008年3月20日 星期四

Key point about 'What the Buddha Taught': Chapter 6

 

What the Buddha Taught

 

 

Chapter VI

The Doctrine of No-soul: ANATTA

 

- Atman:[1]

 1. What in general is suggested by Soul, Self, Ego, Atman.

2. The mean is a permanent, everlasting and absolute entity, which is the unchanging substance behind the changing phenomenal world.

 

- The idea of self:[2]

1. This soul or self in man is the thinker of thoughts, feeler of sensations, and receiver of rewards and punishments for all its actions good and bad. àsuch a conception is called the idea of self.

2. According to the teaching of the Buddha, the idea of self is an imaginary, false belief.

3. It produces harmful thoughts of 'me' and 'mine', selfish desire, craving, attachment, hatred, ill-will, conceit, pride, egoism, and other defilements, impurities and problems.

 

- Anntta and Conditioned Genesis:

1. The doctrine of Anntta or No-soul is the natural result of or the corollary to, the analysis of the Five Aggregates and the teaching of Conditioned Genesis.

2. A being or an individual is composed of the Fire Aggregates, and there is nothing behind them which can be taken as 'I', Atman, or self, or any unchanging abiding substance.

 

- The Buddhist theory of relativity:[3]

1. According to Conditioned Genesis, nothing in the world is absolute.

2. Everything is conditioned, relative, and interdependent.

 

- Conditioned Genesis formula:[4]

àin a short: four lines

Which this is, that is;

This arising, that arises;

When this is not, that is not;

This ceasing, that ceases.

(formula)

When A is, B is;

A arising, B arises;

When A is not, B is not;

A ceasing, B ceases.

 

àin a detailed: consisting of twelve factors[5]

1. Through ignorance are conditioned volitional actions or karma-formations.

2. Through volitional actions is conditioned consciousness.

3. Through consciousness are conditioned mental and physical phenomena.

4. Through mental and physical phenomena are conditioned the six faculties (i.e., five physical sense-organs and mind).

5. Through the six faculities is conditioned (sensorial and mental) contact.

6. Through (sensorial and mental) contact is conditioned sensation.

7. Through sensation is conditioned desire, 'thirst'.

8. Through desire ('thirst') is conditioned clinging.

9. Through clinging is conditioned the process of becoming.

10. Through the process of becoming is conditioned birth.

11. Through birth are conditioned (12) decay, death, lamentation, pain, etc.

 

- Conditioned and Conditioning:

1. Each of these factors is conditioned as well as conditioning.[6]

2. They are all relative, interdependent and interconnected, and nothing is absolute or independent.

 

- First cause:[7]

1. No first cause is accepted by Buddhism.

2. Conditioned Genesis should be considered as a circle, and not as a chain.

 

- Free Will:[8]

1. This question (i.e., Free Will) does not and cannot arise in Buddhist philosophy.

2. So-called 'freedom' itself is conditioned and relative.

3. Such a conditioned and relative 'Free Will' is not denied.

 

- Conventional truth (sammuti-sacca)[9] and Ultimate truth (paramattha-sacca)[10]:

1. Conventional truth: use in our daily life and speak a truth conforming of the convention of the World.

2. Ultimate truth: it is that there is no 'I' or 'being' in reality.

à A person (pudgala) should be mentioned as existing only in designation, but not in reality.[11]

 

- Three verse extremely[12] important and essential in the Buddha's teaching:

1. All conditioned things are impermanent.[13]

2. All conditioned things are dukkha.[14]

3. All dhamma are without self.[15]

 

- Conditioned thing:[16]

 àThe Term 'conditioned thing' denotes the Five Aggregates, all conditioned, interdependent, relative things and states, both physical and mental.

 

- Samkhara[17]:

1. Volition--The fourth Aggregate of Mental Formations

(1) Included all volitional activities both good and bad.

(2) In the five Aggregates means 'Mental Formations. or ‘Mental Activities '.

(3) It producing karmic effect.

2. Conditioned thing:

(1) It means all conditioned or compounded things[18].

(2) Including all the Five Aggregates.

à The Term samkhara has different connotations in different contexts.

 

- Dhamma and Samkhara:

1. The term dhamma is much wider than Samkhara.

2. It includes not only the conditioned things and states, but also the non-conditioned, the Absolute, Nirvana.

 

- All dhamma are with Self:

1. There is no self either in the individual (puggala) or in dhamma.[19]

2. All dhammas are with 'self', there is no ‘Self, no Atman, not only in the Fire Aggregates, but nowhere else too outside them or apart from them.[20]

 

- Atta hi attano, natho:

1. The word 'natho' means 'refuge', 'support', 'help', 'protection'.

2. One is one's own refuge.[21]

3. One is one's own help(support).[22]

4. It means that you have to rely on yourself, and not on others.

 

- Dwell making yourselves your island (support), making yourselves, not anyone else, your refuge; making the Dhamma your island (support), the Dhamma your refuge, nothing else your refuge.

 

- How one could be one's own island or refuge, how one could make The Dhamma one's own island or refuge?

à Through the cultivation of mindfulness or awareness of the body, Sensations, mind and mind-objects (the four Satipathanas).[23]

 

- Indriyaparopariyattanana:[24]

1. He always spoke yo people bearing in mind their standard of development, their tendencies, their mental make-up, their character, their capacity to understand a particular question.

2. He did not answer questions to show his knowledge and intelligence, but to help the questioner on the way to realization.

3. The Buddha was a practical teacher, full of compassion and wisdom.

 

- If there is no Atman or Self, who gets the results of karma (actions)?

à To see conditionality everywhere in all thing.

 



[1] 我、神我。

[2] 我見。

[3] 佛教的相對論。

[4] 緣起論的公式。

[5] 十二因緣。

[6] 這緣起法則的每一部份,一方面是由眾多條件()和合而生(conditioned緣生的),另一方面又同時構成其他部份生起的條件(conditioning緣起的)。

[7] 最初因。

[8] 自由意志。

[9] 俗諦。

[10] 真諦。

[11] 當知「補特伽羅」祇是假名安立,並無實義。

[12] 三首偈。

[13] 諸行無常(行:指有為的事物)。

[14] 諸行皆苦。

[15] 諸法無我。

[16] 行:有為的事物。

[17] Pali,行。

[18] 複合的事物。

[19] 人無我,法無我。

[20] 在五蘊之外或離開五蘊依然無我。

[21] 人當自作依怙。

[22] 人當自助。

[23] 念念分明(四念處)。

[24] Pali,根上下智力。

 

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