2008年3月17日 星期一

Key point about 'What the Buddha Taught': Chapter 5

 

What the Buddha Taught

 

 

Chapter V 

The Fourth Noble Truth: MAGGA: 'The path'

 

- MAGGA: 'The Path'[1]:

1. It is that of the Way leading to the Cessation of Dukkha.

2. This is known as the 'Middle Path:

à It avoids two extremes:

(1)  One extreme being the search for happiness through the pleasures of the senses.

(2)  The other being the search for happiness through self-mortification[2] in different forms of asceticism[3].

 

 

- The 'Middle Path':[4]

1. Which gives vision and knowledge, which leads to Calm, Insight, Enlightenment, Nirvana.

2. This Middle Path is generally refuse referred to as the Noble Eightfold Path, because it is composed of eight Categories on divisions: namely,

(1) Right Understanding.

(2) Right Thought,

(3) Right Speech,

(4) Right Action,

(5) Right Livelihood.

(6) Right Effort,

(7) Right Mindfulness,

(8) Right Concentration.

 

 

- These eight factors aim at promoting and perfecting the three essentials of Buddhist training and discipline: namely,

1. Ethical Conduct (Sila).[5]

2. Mental Discipline (Samadhi),[6]

3. Wisdom (Panna) .[7]

 

 

- Ethical Conduct (Sila):

1. It is built on the vast conception of universal love and compassion for all living beings.

2. It is the Buddha's teaching based.

3. The Buddha gave his teaching 'for the good of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world'.

 

 

- Compassion and Wisdom:[8]

1. According to Buddhism for a man to be perfect there are two qualities that he should develop equally:

(1) Compassion (karuna): It represents love, charity, kind less, tolerance and such noble qualities on the emotional side, or qualities of the heart.

(2) Wisdom (Panna): It would stand for the intellectual side or the qualities of the mind.

2. To be perfect one [9]has to develop both qtr equally.[10]

3. That is the aim of the Buddhist way of life: in it wisdom and compassion are inseparably linked together.

 

 

- Three essential and Eight Way (the Noble Eightfold Path):[11]

1. Ethical Conduct (Sila):

(1) Right Speech.

(2) Right Action.

(3) Right Livelihood.

àThese three factors of the Eightfold faith constitute Ethical Conduct.

àThe Buddhist ethical and moral conduct aims at promoting a happy and harmonious life both for the individual and for society.

 

2. Mental Discipline (Samadhi):

(1) Right Effort.

(2) Right Mindfulness[12] (or Attentiveness[13]).

(3) Right Concentration.

àThus the mind is trained and disciplined and developed through Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.

 

3. Wisdom (Panna)

(1) Right Thought.

(2) Right Understanding.

 

 

- The Noble Eightfold Path:

1. Right Understanding:

(1) It is the understanding of things as they are.

(2) The understanding of the Four Noble Truths (Because the Four Noble Truths that explain  things as they really are).

 

2. Right Thought:

It denotes the thoughts of selfless renunciation or detachment, thoughts of love and thoughts of non-violence, which are extended to all beings.

 

3. Right Speech:

(1) from telling ties.

(2) from backbiting and slander and talk that may bring about hatred, enmity, disunity and disharmony among individuals or groups of people.

(3) from harsh, rude, impolite, malicious and abusive language.

(4) from idle, useless and foolish babble and gossip.

 

4. Right Action:

(1) It aims at promoting moral, honourable and peaceful life conduct.

(2)[14] It admonishes us that we should abstain from destroying life, from stealing, from dishonest dealings, from illegitimate sexual inter course.

 

5. Right Livelihood:

Te means that one should abstain from making one's living through a profession that brings harm to others.

 

6. Right Effort:[15]

It is the energetic will:[16]

(1) to prevent evil and unwholesome states of mind from arising.

(2) to get rid of such evil and unwholesome states that have already arisen within a man.

(3) to produce, to cause to arise, good and Wholesome states of mind not yet arisen.

(4) To develop and bring to perfection the good and wholesome states of mind already present in a man.

 

7. Right Mindfulness: (Attentiveness)[17]

It is to be diligently aware, mindful and attentive with regard to:

(1) the activities of the body (kaya).

(2) sensations or feelings (vedana).

(3) the activities of the mind (citta).

(4) ideas, thoughts, conceptions and things (dhamma).

 

8. Right concentration

It leading to the four stages of Dhyana[18].

 

 

- Two sorts of understanding:[19]

1. Knowing accordingly (anubodha)

(1) knowledge.

(2) an accumulated memory, an intellectual grasping of a subject according to certain given data.

(3) It is not very deep.

 

2. Penetration (pativedha)

(1) It is real deep understanding.[20]

(2) Seeing a thing in its true nature, without name and label.

 

 

- the 'Path':

1. It is a way of life to be followed, practised and developed by each individual.

2. It is self-discipline in body, word and mind, self-development and self-purification.

3. It has nothing To do with[21] belief, prayer, worship or ceremony.

4. It has nothing which may popularly be called 'religious'.

5. It is a Path leading to the 'realization of Ultimate Reality[22].

 

 

- With regard to the Four Noble Truths we have four functions to perform[23]:

1. The First Noble Truth is Dukkha -- our function is to understand it as a fact, clearly and completely (parinneyya).[24]

2. The second Noble Truth is the Origin of Dukkha -- our function is to discard it, to eliminate, To destroy and eradicate it (pahatabha).[25]

3. The Third Noble Truth is the Cessation of Dukkha, Nirvana, the Absolute Truth, the Ultimate Reality -- our function is to realize it (sacchikatabba).[26]

4. The Fourth Noble Truth is the Path leading to the realization of Nirvana -- our function is to follow it and keep to it (bhavetabba).[27]

 



[1] 道諦。

[2] 自虐。

[3] 苦行。

[4] 中道。

[5] 戒學。

[6] 定學。

[7] 慧學。

[8] 慈悲與智慧。

[9] 完人。

[10] 福慧二足尊。

[11] 三學與八正道的關係。

[12] 正念。

[13] 正志。

[14] 戒條。

[15] 此四點就是:未生惡令不生,已生惡令滅;未生善令生,已生善令增長。

[16] 堅強蓬勃的意志。

[17] 即身、受、心、法四念處。

[18] 四禪的正定。

[19] 佛說的「知見」有兩種:事見和理見。

[20] 真正深入的知見。

[21] ……完全無關。

[22] 體證最終實相。

[23] 我們有四樁事要做。

[24] 此是苦,汝應知。

[25] 此是集,汝應斷。

[26] 此是滅,汝應證。

[27] 此是道,汝應修。

 

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