2008年3月15日 星期六

Key point about 'What the Buddha Taught': Chapter 3

What the Buddha Taught

 

Chapter III

The Second Noble Truth: SAMUDAYA: 'The Arising of Dukkha'

 

 

- Thirst (craving, tanha)[1]

1. It is this 'thirst' which produces re-existence and re-becoming.

2. It finds fresh delight now here and there.

3. It is bound up with passionate greed.

 

- Thirst namely:[2]

1. Thirst for sense-pleasures.[3]

2. Thirst for existence and becoming.[4]

3. Thirst for non-existence (self annihilation).[5]

 

- What is the thirst?

1. This 'thirst' has as its centre[6] the false idea of self arising out of ignorance[7].

2. Buddha says: 'The world lacks and hankers, and is enslaved to “thirst”[8].'

 

- Four Nutriments (ahara):[9]

1. Ordinary material food.[10]

2. Contact of our sense-organs (including mind) with the external world.[11]

3. Consciousness.[12]

4. Mental volition or will.[13]

 

- Mental Volition:[14]

1. It is the will to live, to exist, to re-exist, to continue, to become more and more.

2. It creates the root of existence and continuity, striving forward by way of good and bad actions.

3. Volition is karma.

4. This is the cause of the arising of dukkha.

5. This is found within the Aggregate of Mental Formations.

 

- Kamma (Pali.), karma (skr.)

1. In the Buddhist theory of kamma, it means only 'volitional action', not all action.

2. In Buddhist terminology[15] karma never means its effect[16]; its effect is known as the 'fruit[17]' or the 'result[18]' of karma.

3. Volition may relatively[19] be good or bad, just as a desire may relatively be good or bad. So karma may be good or bad relatively.

à Good karma produces good effects, and bad karma produces bad effects.

àWhether good or bad it is relative, and is within the cycle of continuity.

 

- Energy is functioning forever:[20]

1. This force (energy) does not stop with the non-functioning of the body, which is death.

2. It continues manifesting itself in another form, producing re-existence which is called rebirths rebirth.

3. When this physical body is no more capable of functioning, energies do not die with it, but continue to take some other shape or form, which we call another life[21].

 

 

 

 



[1] P.29+P.54。渴()

[2] P.29+P.54

[3] 欲愛。

[4] 有愛。

[5] 無有愛。

[6] 核心。

[7] 從無明生起的虛妄我見。

[8] 世人常感不足,乃成為渴()的奴隸。

[9] P.30+P.55,四食。

[10] 段食。

[11] 觸食。

[12] 識食。

[13] 思食。

[14] P.31+P.56

[15] 佛學術語。

[16] 業的效應。

[17] 業果。

[18] 業報。

[19] 相對地。

[20] P.33+P.58~60,能量永遠在運作,不因相上的死亡而消失、結束。

[21] 另一生命。

 

 

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